The first section deals with unsolved murders. We continue to encounter situations today where justice is denied and we must trust God's justice to prevail in eternity. God's Word instructs us to repent of the evil that is done in our midst, even when we aren't personally responsible. It provides wisdom in that we are not to lash out in anger and revenge without sufficient proof.
The next section relates to how we treat those over whom we have power. In the Israelites' day, it provided instruction that women taken as captives were not to be treated as slaves, but rather to be given the rights of a wife. In today's world, we might consider how we treat those captured in war, refugees seeking asylum, or even our employees, and ensure their rights are protected.
The section dealing with the rights of the firstborn reminds us that we should not "play favorites." Whether it is with our own children, within government, or in employment, rights and privileges should not be clouded by our personal bias. In order to combat this tendency, we must first acknowledge to ourselves that we are biased. Only then can we ensure that our bias does impinge the rights of others.
The final section provides for capitol punishment in the case of a rebellious son. Even this extreme example provided restraint compared to the norm - specifically, it refers to an adult son who continues in defiance of his parents, rather than a child; it requires both the father and the mother to bring the son before the elders, and it requires the elders to find him guilty.
The Bible records no instance of this sentence being carried out, but stresses the purpose is to deter behavior that will ultimately lead to Israel's desertion of God and subsequent judgment on the entire nation. The requirement for the parents to bring the son before the elders emphasizes the responsibility parents have for raising their children to understand God and to obey His commands.
The reality today is that many disobedient and rebellious children pay the death penalty through the natural consequences of foolish choices. When raised within a home where anything goes, they fail to learn that their actions have consequences. As parents, the training we provide our children may ultimately lead to abundant life or to death.
This is true both physically and spiritually. Just as failing to teach a child to look both ways before crossing a street may result in their injury or death, failing to teach a child about eternal life through faith in Christ may result in their eternal separation from God.